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What you need:
  • String
  • Wooden stakes
  • Half moon edger
  • Square headed shovel

The first step is to set a string line. Using stakes as shown and a builder's square, you can create a uniformly square or rectangular area. If you want a more organic shape, use a garden hose to mark the borders of your bed.
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Use a half moon edger to cut through the turf around the perimeter of the string line.
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Finally, using a square headed spade, remove the turf, piece by piece, by undercutting the roots of the grass. Once the sod is removed, you will have to heavily cultivate the soil below either using a rototiller or by hand.