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There are many different types of media available for potting orchids. This is a list of some of the more commonly used materials.
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Fir bark is probably the most frequently used and readily available material for potting orchids. It comes in various grades. In general, the larger the roots of the orchid, the larger the grades of bark used.
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Lava Rock is also used, frequently by itself. It is more porous than gravel. This volcanic material is useful because it won't rot.
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Charcoal is sometimes used in combination with fir bark and other potting materials to improve drainage
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Recently sphagnum moss, especially New Zealand Sphagnum moss, has become a popular potting medium, particularly for Phalaenopsis.
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Tree fern chunks and fiber are frequently used for Vandas, Ascocendas, and other epiphytic orchids.
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There are various commercial orchid mixes available that are made up of different combinations of the materials mentioned above. If you have a good number of orchids to pot, it's generally more cost effective to buy in bulk the materials you wish to use and make your own mix.